Development and Validation of a Questionnaire to Assess Pedestrian Receptivity toward Fully Autonomous Vehicles.
Deb, S., Strawderman, L., Carruth, D. W., DuBien, J., Smith, B. K., & Garrison, T. M. (2017). Development and Validation of a Questionnaire to Assess Pedestrian Receptivity toward Fully Autonomous Vehicles. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies. 84, 178-195.
This study analyzes pedestrian receptivity toward fully autonomous vehicles (FAVs) by developing and validating a pedestrian receptivity questionnaire for FAVs (PRQF). The questionnaire included sixteen survey items based on attitude, social norms, trust, compatibility, and system effectiveness. 482 Participants from the United States (273 males and 209 females, age range: 18–71 years) responded to an online survey. A principal component analysis determined three subscales describing pedestrians’ receptivity toward FAVs: safety, interaction, and compatibility. This factor structure was verified by a confirmatory factor analysis and reliability of each subscale was confirmed (0.7 < Cronbach’s alpha < 0.9). Regression analyses investigated associations with scenario-based responses to the three PRQF subscale scores. Pedestrians’ intention to cross the road in front of FAVs was significantly predicted by both safety and interaction scores, but not by the compatibility score. Accepting FAVs in the existing traffic system was predicted by all three subscale scores. Demographic influence on the receptivity revealed that males and younger respondents were more receptive toward FAVs. Similarly, those from urban areas and people with higher personal innovativeness showed higher receptivity. Finally, a significant effect of pedestrian behavior (as measured by the pedestrian behavior questionnaire) on receptivity is explored. People who show positive behavior believed that the addition of FAVs will improve overall traffic safety. Those who show higher violation, lapse and aggression scores, were found to feel more confident about crossing the road in front of a FAV. This questionnaire can be a potential research tool for designing and improving FAVs for road-users outside the vehicles.